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The infinitive or the gerund

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The infinitive

1.)The infinitive as object or complement of the verb
The most useful verbs which can be followed directly by the infinitive are:

Agree** be determined** pretend*
Aim endeavour proceed
Appear* fail promise*
Arrange** forget* prove*
Ask** guarantee* refuse
Attempt happen* remember*
Bother (negative) hesitate resolve**
Care (negative) hope seem*
Choose learn* swear*
Claim** long tend
Condescend manage threaten*
Consent neglect trouble (negative)
Decide** offer try (=attempt)
Decline plan undrtake*
Demand** prepare volunteer
Determine** be prepared vow

*1.tip
Starred verbs or expressions can also be used with a that- clause:
i promise to wait= i promise that i will wait.
He pretended to be angry= he pretended that he was angry.

Occur (used mainly in negative and interrogative) reguires an introductory it both with an infinitive and a that constuction:
It didn’t occur to me to ask him for proof of his identity. (I didn’t think of doing this.)
It occured to me that he was trying to conceal something. (The idea came to me.)

Appear, happen, seem, turn out, when used with a that construction, also require an inroductory it:
It turned out that his ‘counry cottage’ was an enormous bungalow
But
His ‘country cottage’ turned out to be an enormous bugalow. (infinitive construction)


**2.tip
verbs with two stars take an infinitive or a that...should construction. That...should is particularly useful in the passive:
They decided\\agreed to divide the profits equally.
They decided that the profits should be divided equally.
I arranged to meet\\for Tom to meet them.
I arranged that Tom should meet them.
I arranged that they should be meet.



1.1)Auxiliary verbs

Be dare have must ought will
Can do may need shall used

2.)THe following phrases can also be followed by the an infinitive:

Be about make up one’s mind* (=decide)
Be able + afford occur+ to+object
Do one’s best\\ set out
Do what one can take the trouble
Make an\\every effort turn out* (=prove to be)
Examples of 1.1) and 2.):
She agreed to pay 50$.
Two men failed to return from the expedition.
I managed to put the fire out.
They are preparing (=getting ready) toevacuate the area.
We are not prepared (=willing) to wait any longer.
The tenants refused to leave.
Prices always tend to go up.
Shevolunteered to help with Meals on Wheels.
He is just about to leave. (on the point of leaving)
We can’t afford to live in the centre.
He didn’t bother\\trouble to answer personally.
Opposite of the above:
He took the trouble to answer personally.

3.)The infinitive after verb + object
The most important of these are:

Advise forbid make* show how
Allow force oblige teach \\ teach how
Bribe hear* order tell \\ tell how
Command implore permit tempt
Compel induce persuade train
Enable instruct remind urge
Encourage invite request warn
Entitle let* see* watch*
Feel*
*here means ‘bare infinitive’.
Advise, allow and permit can be also used with gerunds.


Examples of verb + object + infinitive:
These glasses will enable you to see in the dark.
She encouraged me to try again.
They forbade her to leave the house.
OR
She was forbiden to leave the house. (more usual)
Nothing would induce me to do business with them.
They persuaded us to go with them.
They are training these dogs to sniff uot drugs.


4.)The infinitive after certain nouns
A number of nouns can be followed directly by the infinitive. Some of the usefull are:

Ability demand failure request
Ambition desire offer scheme
Anxiety determination plan willingness
Attempt eagerness promise wish
decision effort refusal
His ability to get on with people is his chief asset.
He made an attempt\\effort to stand up.
Failure to obey the regulations may result in disqualification.
Their offer\\plan\\promise to rebuild the town not taken seriously.
She was annoyed by his unwillingness to do his share of the work.


The gerund
1.)Verbs followed by the gerund
The most important of these are:

Admit keep (=continue)
Anticipate loathe
Appreciate mean (=involve)
Avoid mind (=object)
Consider miss
Defer pardon
Delay postipone
Deny practise
Detest prevent
Dislike propose(=suggest)
Dread recollect
Enjoy remember(=recollect)
Escape resent
Excuse resist
Fancy (=imagine) risk
Finish save (sb the trouble of)
Forgive stop (=cease)
Imagine suggest
Involve understand
The gerund is also used after the expressions can’t stand (=endure), can’t help (=prevent\\avoid), it’s no use\\good and after the adjective worth.


2.)Verbs + possessive adjective\\pronoun object + gerund
If the verbs or + preposition is followed directly by the gerund, the gerund refers to the subject of the verb:
Tom insisted on reading the letter. (Tom read it.)

But if we put a possessive adjective or pronoun before the gerund, the gerund refers to the person denoted by the possessive adjective\\pronoun:
He insisted on my\\me reading it. (I had to read it.)

Useful verbs and expressions which can take either constructions are:

Dislike propose understand
Dread recollect approve \\ disapprove of
Fancy remember insist on
Involve resent it’s no good \\ use
Like (negative) save object to
Mean stop there’s no point in
Mind suggest what’s the point of
He dislike working late.
He dislike me\\my working late.
I object to paying twice for the same thing.
I object to his\\him making private calls on this phone.
He resented being passed over for promotion.
He resented my\\me being promoted before him.

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